Philippine Overseas Employment Administration
Legal Assistance Page
COMMON QUESTIONS AND FAQS

What is an Oec? (Ano ang OEC?)   +  


OEC stands for Overseas Employment Certificate being issued by POEA as the OFW travel exit clearance at the airport and immigration counters. It also serves as the basis of exemption for OFWs payment of travel tax and airport terminal fees.

Ang OEC ay ang Overseas Employment Certificate na ibinibigay ng POEA na katunayan na ang OFWs ay maaari ng maka-alis ng bansa at ipinapakita sa airport at immigration counters. Ito rin ang nagsisilbing basehan para hindi singilin ang OFWs ng travel tax at terminal fees.

I am a Filipino and I want to travel abroad, do I need to secure OEC? (Ako ay Filipino at gusto kong umalis ng bansa, kailangan ko pa ba ng OEC?)   +  


It depends. If the intention of your travel abroad is for employment purposes, you need to secure an OEC, regardless of the mode of deployment.

Depende. Kung ikaw ay mag-tatatrabaho sa ibang bansa, kailangan mo ng OEC.

I want to apply for overseas employment, where can I find licensed recruitment agencies and its job orders? (Gusto kong magtrabaho sa ibang bansa, saan ako maghahanap ng mga lisensiyadong ahensiya at trabaho?)   +  


Visit the POEA website at www.poea.gov.ph to browse the list of licensed recruitment agencies and its corresponding job orders for various countries and employment positions.

Bumisita sa POEA website at www.poea.gov.ph para maghanap ng listahan ng mga lisensyadong ahensiya at mga trabaho nito (job orders) sa ibat ibang bansa.

I am a permanent resident visa holder in US, do I have to secure OEC?   +  


No, only those are leaving the country as workers withwork/employment visa are required to secure OEC or exit clearance. Permanent residents or immigrants, however, should register with the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO).

Does OEC has expiration?(Nawawalan ba ng bias ang OEC?)   +  


Yes. OECs expire 60 days after the issuance of the same, except for OECs issued by LAC (Labor Assistance Center located at every airport in the country) which expire in a DAY.

May anim na pung (60) araw o dalawang (2) buwan lamang ang bisa ng OEC, oon. Hanggmaliban sa OEC na ibinibigay ng LAC (Labor Assistance Center sa bawat paliparan sa bansa na may isang (1) araw lamang ang bisa.

Who can only secure OEC issued by LAC? (Sinu-sino lamang ang maaring makakuha ng OEC sa LAC?)   +  


The Administration may issue OEC at the LAC ONLY to the following:

1. Workers on special/emergency leave;
2. Cabin crew / flight attendants.

Sila ay ang mga sumusunod:

a. Mga OFWs na naka-special o emergency leave.
b. Cabin crew / flight attendants.

While walking around Ermita, Manila, I met someone who is recruiting for overseas employment so I decided to inquire, she told me that I have to leave the country as tourist for faster deployment, is this legal?(Habang ako ay naglalakad sa Ermita, Manila, may nakilala akong nag-papaalis papuntang ibang bansa para magtrabaho. Nang ako ay nagtanong, sinabi niya sa akin na kinakailangan kong umalis bilang turista para mapadali ang aking pag-alis. Legal ba ito?)   +  


No. A worker who wish to leave the country with tourist/visit visa endangers him/herself to be deferred departure by the Bureau of Immigration as such arrangement runs afoul the existing legal way of finding overseas employment in the Philippines.

Hindi. Ang sinumang OFWs gustong umalis ng bansa bilang turista ay hindi papayagayang makaalis ng Bureau of Immigration dahil ito ay labag sa batas.

What are the legal modes of deployment or ways finding an overseas employment?(Anu-ano ang mga legal na paraan para makapagtrabaho sa ibang bansa?)   +  


The legal modes of deployment are as follows:

1. Agency Hiring- where the worker is deployed by a licensed recruitment agency.

2. Name-Hiring/ Direct Hiring - where the worker secured an overseas employment without an intervention of any private recruitment agency or entity.

3. Government to Government Hiring- where the worker is deployed by POEA thru the Government Placement Branch to work for other countries abroad.

4. BalikManggagawa- where the worker is merely returning to the same employer abroad, regardless of jobsite.

Ito ay ang mga sumusunod:

1. Agency-Hiring- kung saan ang OFW ay dumadaan at pinapaalis ng isang lisensyadong ahensiya.

2. Name-Hiring/ Direct Hiring- kung saan ang OFW ay direktang nakahanap ng trabaho ng walang tulong ng isang ahensiya.

3. Government to Government Hiring- kung saan ang isang OFW ay dumadaan at pinapaalis ng POEA para magtrabaho sa ibang bansa.

4. BalikManggagawa- kung saan ang isang OFW ay nakapagtrabaho nasa ibang bansa at babalik sa dating employer at pinagtrabahuhan.


Is Balik-Manggagawa the same as BalikBayan? (Ang Balik-Manggagawa ba ay Balikbayan?)   +  


No. BalikManggagawarefers to any worker either asa worker-on-leave or OFWs who are in the Philippines for a short vacation but would return to the same employer overseas and is still under a valid and existing job contract, a re-hire - OFWs who returned to the Philippines after finishing an employment contract overseas but would return to the same foreign employer because they are re-hired, or a POLO registered- worker -These are returning workers whose employment contracts were not processed by POEA, but were verified by the Philippine Overseas Labor Office (POLO) in the jobsite. They would return to the same employer either as a worker-on-leave or rehire, regardless of any changein the jobsite

On the other hand, BalikBayan generally refers to a Filipino citizen who has been continuously out of the Philippines for a period of at least one (1) year, a Filipino overseas worker, or a former Filipino citizen and his or her family who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines. Hindi. Ang Balik- Manggagawa ay maaring isang OFW nakasalukuyangnasabansa para magbakasyonlamang at babalik pa saparehongemployer nakasaad sa kasalukuyang kontrata, o isang OFW na nakatapos na ng kontrata ngunit babalik muli sa kanyang dating employer o kaya’y isang OFW na matapos hindi dumadaan sa legal na proseso ay nagtungo sa POLO para magpa-registro at babalik sa parehong employer o amo.

Sa kabilangbanda, Ang Balikbayan karaniwang tumutukoy sa isang Filipino na nasalabas ng bansa ng isang taon o mahigit pa, bilang OFW o bilang isang dating Filipino o ang pamilya nito at gusting magtungo sa Pilipinas.

Somebody approached me and identified herself as a legal recruiter, how do I know that she is really a legal recruiter? (May lumapitsa akin at nagpakilalangna kaya niyangmapaalisakobilang OFW, paanokomalalaman kung legal ng aba siyangrekruter?)   +  


Every agent or employees of a licensed recruitment agency are registered with POEA. Thus, the worker is advised consult the matter immediately to POEA’s Licensing Branch of Licensing and Regulation Office at 4th floor, Blas Ople Building, Ortigas Ave., Cor. Edsa, Mandaluyong Cityto verify the authority/license of the recruiter or call 722-1189 for Legal Assistance.

Lahat ng ahente (agent) at mga empleyado ng isang lisensyadong ahensiya ay nakarehistro sa POEA. Kung hindi registrado, dapat itong i-report sa POEA Legal Assistance Division, Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch o kaya tumawag sa 722-1189.

If I were being recruited by an agency, entity or person without a license or authority from POEA, what shall I do? How about if I were already victimized? (Kung ako ay kasalukuyang pinapangakuan ng trabaho ng isang ahensiya na walang lisensiya o awtorisasyon ng POEA, ano ang gagawin ko? Paano kung ako ay nabiktima na?)   +  


Report the matter immediately to POEA’s Operation and Surveillance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch at telephone no. 722-11-92 or the Philippine National Police or NBI for investigative assistance.

If you were already a victim of illegal recruitment, the Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch located at 4th Floor, POEA Building will help you file a case for illegal recruitment.

I-report ito sa POEA’s Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch na may telepono bilang 722-11-92 o kaya sa Philippine National Police o kaya sa NBI para maimbestigahan ito.

Kung ikaw ay biktima na, sumanguni sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division ng Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch na matatagpuan sa 4th Floor, POEA Building para magsampa ng kaso laban sa iyong recruiter.

How do I know that the licensed agency really has an approved job order? (Paano ko malalaman kung angisang lisensyadong ahensiya ay may kaukulang job order?)   +  


You can verify the job order at www.poea.gov.ph or you may visit the Information Assistance Center at Ground Floor of the POEA to verify the same.

Ang Job Order ng bawat lisensyadong ahensiya ay maaring na makita sa www. poea.gov.ph o kaya magtungo sa Information Center of the POEA para ma-verify ito.

What is a job order? (Ano ang job order?)   +  


It is a manpower request coming from a foreign employer, verified by POLO and approved by POEA.

Ito ay ang katunayan na ang employer o amo ay naghahanap ng manggagawa na pinatutuhanan naman ng Philippine Overseas Labor Office o POLO at aprobado ng POEA.

What are the legal fees chargeable against the workers? (Anu-ano ang mga dapat na binabayaran ng isang OFW?)   +  


1. Placement Fee equivalent to one (1) - month basic salary as stated in the POEA-approved contract, except Domestic Workers and Seafarers and in countries where the prevailing system, either by law, policy or practice do not allow, directly or indirectly, the charging and the collection of recruitment/placement fee;

2. Documentary Costsinclude fees for passport, NBI/Police/Barangay clearance,NSOAuthenticatedBirth Certificate, Transcript of Records and Diploma issued by the school, certified by the CHED and authenticated by DFA, Certificate of Competency issued by TESDA and other competent certifying body for the job applied for, DOH prescribed medical/health examination based on the host country medical protocol;

3. Membership Contributions with PHILHEALTH, PAG-IBIG and the SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM (SSS).


1. Placement Fee – katumbas ng isang buwanang sahod, maliban na lamang kung isang Domestic Workers and Seafarers at OFWs na patungo sa bansang nagbabawal maninigil ng placement fee dahil sa kanilang batas, polisiya o praktis;

2. Documentary Costs- ito ay ang magagastos o babayarin para makakuha ng pasaporte, NBI/Police/Barangay Clearance, NSO Authenticated Birth Certificate, Transcript of Records and Diploma na binigay ng paaralan at sertipikado ng CHED at pinatunayan ng DFA, Certificate of Competency na galing sa TESDA at resulta ng medical clinic na awtorisadong DOH;

3. Membership Contributions sa PHILHEALTH, PAG-IBIG at saSOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM( SSS).

What are the legal fees chargeable against principal/employer? (Anu-ano naman ang dapat bayaran ng isang employer o amo?)   +  


1. Visa, including the stamping fee
2. Work permit and residence permit
3. Round trip airfare
4. Transportation from the airport to the jobsite
5. POEA processing fee
6. OWWA membership fee
7.Additionaltrade test/assessment, if required by the principal/employer


1. Visa, kasama na ang stamping fee nito
2. Work permit at residence permit
3. Round trip airfare
4. Pamasahe mula sa airport papunta sa lugar ng trabaho
5. POEA processing fee; 6. OWWA membership fee
7. Iba pang treyning o kasanayan na ipapagawa ng employer o amo

Examples of the countries where the prevailing system, either by law, policy or practice do not allow, directly or indirectly, the charging and the collection of recruitment/placement fee?   +  


United States of Amercia (for H-2A and H-2B visa), New Zealand, Israel, United Kingdom (UK), Norway, Netherlands, Ireland and some parts of Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)

Who pays the premium of the compulsory insurance? (Sino ang nagbabayad ng premium ng compulsory insurance?)   +  


Private recruitment agency under Section 37-A of RA 8042, as amended.

Ang lisensyadong ahensiya ayon sa Seksyon 37-A ng RA 8042.

I am a new applicant. I went to a private recruitment agency, upon arriving thereat and after I submitted my resume and passport, I was charged to pay a placement fee amounting to one month salary reflected in the "job offer" document presented to me and at the same time, instructed to undergo medical examination, are the acts of agency correct? If not, what should I do? (Tumungo ako sa isang ahensiya para magapply at i-sumite ang aking resume at pasaporte. Pagkabigay ko ng nasabing mga dokumento, kinukuhanan ako agad ng placement fee na katumbas ng isang buwanang sahod na nakasaad isang dokumentong "job offer", pinagsabihan na rin akong magtungo sa isang clinic para sumailalim sa isang medical examination, legal ba ang pag pro-proseso ng ahensiya? Ano ang dapat kung gawin?)   +  


No. Placement fee can only be collected or charged by the agency ONLY after the worker has signed a POEA approved contract. The worker shall undergo medical examination ONLY after a reasonable certainty that he/she shall be hired by the principal/employer under an approved job order. The worker is also advised to consult the matter immediately to POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch.

Hindi. Ang placement fee ay maari lamang singilin o kolektahin matapos makapirma ng aplikante ng kontrata na aprobado ng POEA. Ang OFW ay maari din sumailalim na sa isang eksaminasyong pang medikal kung natitiyak na ng ahensiya na siya ay maaring mapili ng employer o ng amo para magtrabaho sa ilalim ng isang aprobadong job order. Maaring kumunsulta sa ang sinumang may ganitong suliranin sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch.

After being hired by the employer and signing of a contract, one of the agents of the private recruitment agency approached me and required me to pay him a referral fee, is this legal? (Matapos akong mapili ng aking employer at makapirma ng kontrata, ako ay nilapitan ng isang ahente ng isang lisensiyadong ahensiya at humihingi ng referral fee, legal na ito?)   +  


No. Under the existing POEA rules and regulations, no other charges in whatever amount, form, manner or purpose shall be charged against the OFW, except those specified in the rule.(Sec. 54 of 2016 POEA Rules)

Hindi. Ayon sa umiiral na patakaran ng POEA, walang ibang dapat bayaran na ng isang OFW maliban lamang sa mga partikular na nakatakda sa batas.. (Seksyon. 54 ng 2016 POEA Rules)

Based on my contract, my basic monthly salary is P40, 000.00 plus an additional P10,000.00 as allowance, thus, the private recruitment agency charged me of P50, 000.00 as placement fee, is it legal? (Ayon sa kontrata, ako ay makakatanggap ng isang buwan sahod na nagkakahalaga ng P40, 000.00 at may karagdagang P10,000.00. Kayat ang aking ahensiya ay naniningil ng placement fee sa halagang P50,000.00, legal ba ito?)   +  


No. A placement fee should be equivalent only to BASIC monthly salary, excluding other benefits found in the contract.

Hindi. Ang placement fee ay dapat katumbas lamang ng isang buwanang sahod at hindi kasama ang mga bang karagdagang benepisyo.

I am certain to be hired by the employer under an approved job order I personally verified in POEA, can the private recruitment agency require me to undergo medical examination of its choice? (Ako ay tiyak nang pipiliin ng aking employer na magtrabaho sa kanya sa ilalim ng isang aprobadong job order na nasa POEA, maari bang ako ay pilitin na sumailalim na sa eksaminasyong pang-medikal na pinili lamang ng aking ahensiya?)   +  


No. The worker may opt to undergo medical examination HIS/HER CHOICE, provided that the medical clinic is an accredited by the Department of Health (DOH).

Hindi. Ang OFW ay maaring pumili ng medical clinic para sa kanyang eksaminasyong pang-medikal hanggat ito ay may awtorisado ng Department of Health (DOH).

Assuming I insisted to go undergo medical examination of my choice, but I do not know the coverage of the medical examination I should take, what shall I do? (Kung sakaling pinili kong sumailalim sa eksaminasyong pang-medikal sa gusto kong medical clinic ngunit hindi ko alam kung anu-ano ba dapat ang mga eskaminasyong kukunin ko, ano ang dapat kong gawin?)   +  


Consult the agency for the coverage of the medical examination to conform with the standards set by the host government of the principal/employer.

Kumonsulta sa ahensiya para sa mga dapat na eskaminasyong pang-medikal na dapat kunin sa gayon ay matiyak na ito ay nasa parehas na pamantayan ng gobyerno ng employer o ng amo.

After knowing the coverage of the medical examination I should take, I insisted to go undergo medical examination of my choice but the private recruitment agency refused to recognize it, what shall I do? (Matapos ibigay ng ahensiya ang mga dapat na eksaminasyong pang-medikal na dapat kong kunin, sumailalim na ako sa eksaminasyon ngunit hindi ito kinilala ng ahensiya, ano ang dapat kong gawin?)   +  


The worker is advised to consult the matter immediately to POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch at 4th floor, Blas Ople Building, Ortigas Ave., Cor. Edsa, Mandaluyong City.

Ikunsulta ito sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch.

I underwent medical examination on areferred DOH-accredited medical clinic of the private recruitment agency and I was found unfit to work. Thereafter, I sought a second opinion of other DOH-medical clinic where I was found perfectly fit to work, what shall I do? (Sumailalim ako sa isang eksaminasyong pang-medical na itinuro ng aking ahensiya at dun ako ay sinabing hindi pwedeng malusog para magtrabaho kaya ako ay sumailalim muli sa parehong eksaminayon sa ibang medical clinic na awtorisado din ng DOH at dun ay sinabing malusog ako para makapagtrabaho, ano ang dapat kong gawin?)   +  


To be sure, seek another medical examination with any competent medical clinic or hospital in the country. The worker is also advised to report the matter to the Department of Health for possible disciplinary action against the erring clinic.

Para makasigurado, kumonsulta sa isa pang respetadong medical clinic o ospital sa bansa. Ikunsulta ang pangyayari sa Department of Health (DOH) at maaring panugutin ang clinic kung kailangan.

I applied with a private recruitment agency where I have shown them my existing TESDA-training certificate, but I was told that I should undergo another training, is it appropriate? How about if the agency refused to recognize the same? (Ipinakita ko ang aking sertipikasyon ng TESDA bilang katunayan ng aking kasanayan sa trabaho sa ahensiya kong pinag-aaplyan ngunit ako ay pinagsabihan na muli akong magsanay sa parehong kasanayan, tama ba ito? Paano kung hindi ito kilalalanin ng ahensiya?)   +  


No. It is sufficient that your TESDA training certificate has not yet expired. If the agency refused to recognize it, consult the matter to POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch for legal appropriate action against the agency.

Mali. Ang sertipikasyon ng TESDA sa kasanayan sa trabaho ay sapat na hanggang ito ay may bisa pa. Kung ito ay hindi kilalanin ng ahensiya , kumonsulta agad sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division ng Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch para maaksiyunan ito.

If despite of my TESDA training certificate, knowledge, skill set and experience, the foreign employer still required me to undergo another training, who shall pay said training expenses? (Kung ang aking employer o amo ay pinagsasanay pa ako sa ibang kasanayan, bukod pa aking kasalukuyan kong kasanayan, sertipikasyon ng TESDA at kagalingan, sino ang dapat magbayad sa nabanggit na karagdagang pagsasanay o treyning?)   +  


The employer should pay expenses for the additional trade test or assessment.

Ang employer o amo ang dapat magbayad sa karagdagang pagsasanay at treyning.

I applied with a private recruitment agency where I was promised to be deployed but after waiting a considerable length of time, the agency failed to deploy me, what shall I do? If I decided to withdraw my application and demand the return of my passport but the agency refused to return the same, can I file a case against the agency? If yes, what charges I may file?Can I also claim for reimbursement of my expenses? (Ako ay nag-apply sa isang ahensiya na kung saan ako ay pinangakuan na makakaalis, ngunit paglipas ng matagal na paghihintay, hindi pa rin ako mapaalis ng aking ahensiya, ano ang dapat kong gawin? Kung iuurong ko ang aking aplikasyon at tumanggi ang ahensiya na ibalik sa akin ang aking mga dokumento, maari ba akong magsampa ng kaso sa kanila? Kung oo, ano ang maarin kong isampang kaso? Maari ko rin bang mabawi lahat ng nagastos ko sa aplikasyon?)   +  


Waiting for a considerable length of time for hiring or deployment promised by the agency is an indication that the job might not be covered by a job order, thus, the applicant is advised to consult the matter to POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch. (Allan A. Dela Cruz vs. CH Placement Inc., POEA Case No. RV 06-06-1050, Dec. 28, 2006)

Yes. The worker may file a case against the agency for withholding of travel documents. Under existing POEA rules and regulations, the agency CANNOT at any consideration, withhold the travel documents of the worker, particularly the passport. The worker may also charge the agency for failure to deploy and claimed for reimbursementsof placement fee, documentation costs and other expenses incurred in connection with said recruitment if the deployment did not take place without worker's fault. In any case, the worker is advised to consult the matter immediately to POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch.


Ang sobrang tagal ng paghihintay para maalis ay isang indikasyon na ang trabahong inaalok ay maaring walang job order. Kumonsulta sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch para maaksiyunan ito. ( POEA case)

Oo. Ang OFW ay maaring magsampa ng hindi pagbabalik ng dokumento ("withholding of travel documents"). Ayon sa kasalukyang umiiral na regulasyon ng POEA, ang ahensiya ay hindi kahit kailan maaring tumangging ibalik ang dokumento ng mga aplikante, lalo na ang pasaporte. Maari ring magsampa ng bigong mapaalis ng ahensiya ("failure to deploy) at pagbawi sa mga nagastos ("claimed for reimbursements") sa placement fee, documentary costs at iba pang actual na nagastos sa aplikasyon laban sa ahensiya kung ang bigong pagpapaalis ay kasalanan ng ahensiya. Kumonsulta sa POEA’s Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch para matulungang maisampa ang mga ito.

I am a name-hired worker, how much fees do I need to pay for processing my papers? (Ako ay name-hired, magkano dapat ang aking babayaran sa pagpro-proseso ko ng aking dokumento?)   +  


1. POEA Processing Fee – P 100.00
2. OWWA membership fee – US$25 or its peso equivalent
3. (Philhealth) – P900.00
4. PAG-Ibig – P100.00


I was hired by an employer and provided a visa for Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, part of the visa however, was written in Arabic, what shall I do to understand the same? (Ako ay binigyan ng aking employer o amo ng visa papuntang Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, pero ito nakasulat sa Arabic, ano ang gagawin ko para maintindihan ko ito?)   +  


Go to Office on Muslim Affairs located atAblaza, Blaza Bldg., 117 E. Rodriquez Ave., 1102 Quezon City or OMA (Halal Unit) at Jacfer Annex Bldg., Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City.

Magtungo sa opisina ng Office on Muslim Affairs na matatagpuan sa Ablaza, Blaza Bldg., 117 E. Rodriquez Ave., 1102 Quezon City or OMA (Halal Unit) at Jacfer Annex Bldg., Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City.

After I paid my placement fee, the agency issued a corresponding "acknowledgement receipt", it is legal? (Matapos makapagbayad ng placement fee, ako ay binigyan ng ahensiya ng isang resibo na may nakatatak na"acknowledgement receipt", legal ba ito?)   +  


No. The agency must issue a BIR-registered receipt stating the date of payment and the exact amount.

Hindi. Ang ahensiya ay dapat magbigay lamang ng opisyal na resibo na nakaregistro sa BIR na kung saan nakasaad ang petsa ng pagbabayad at ang halaga ng binayaran.

What is the minimum and maximum employable age for overseas employment? (Anong edad maari ng makapagtrabaho sa ibang bansa at anong edad naman hindi na maari?)   +  


Under existing labor laws, POEA rules and regulations, a worker should be at least 18 years of age except for Domestic Helpers who should be at least 23 years of age. No maximum age, however was set by the law, rules or regulations and thus, dependent on the employer.

Ayon sa umiiral na batas at regulasyon ng POEA, ang isang manggagawa ay dapat nasa edad na labing walo (18), maliban na lamang kung magtatrabaho bilang Domestic Helpers na kinakailangang nasa edad dalawamput tatlo (23). Sa kabilang banda, walang edad na itinakda ang batas, o regulasyon sa kung saan hindi na maari magtrabaho sa ibang bansa ang isang OFW, samatuwid, ito ay nakadepende sa employer o amo.

I was hired by employer for a 2 year-contract but, after serving only fora month, he immediately terminated my service and sent me back to the Philippines without any reason. Can I file for illegal termination, breach of contract and claim for unpaid wages against him? Where shall I file these cases? (Ako ay may dalawang taong kontrata sa aking employer, ngunit matapos ang isang buwang pagtatrabaho, bigla na lamang pinutol ng employer ko ang kontrata at pinauwi na ako sa Pilipinas ng walang dahilan. Maari ba akong mag-file sa pagputol ng kontrata ko, paglabag nito at maningil ng sahod ko sa natitirang buwan sa kontrata laban sa employer ko? Saan ko ito maaring isampa?)   +  


Yes. You may file an illegal termination case against your employer, impleading your private recruitment agency that deployed you before the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) in Quezon City or in NLRC’s Regional Arbitration Branch in the region you reside as money claims arising from employer-employee relationship such as unpaid wages, breach of contract or illegal dismissal are within the jurisdiction of the NLRC.
You may also file a case for possible disciplinary action against your employer before the POEA.


Oo. Ikaw ay maaring magsampa sa pagputol ng kontrata (illegal termination) mo laban sa iyong employer, kasama ang iyong ahensiya na nagpaalis sayo sa National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) sa Quezon City o kaya sa Regional Arbitration Branch nito kung saan ka nakatira sapagkat ang money claims na nagmumula sa relasyon ng employer at ng empleyado katulad ng hnidi bayad na sahod, paglabag sa kontrata o kaya ay pagputol nito ng walang dahilan ay nasasaklaw sa kapangyahiran ng NLRC.
Ikaw din ay maaring magsampa ng kaso sa iyong employer ng kaso para madisiplina ito sa POEA.

I applied for certain employment position but when I read the contract, the employment position indicated therein bears a different position, what shall I do? (Inalok ako ng aking ahensiya sa isang trabaho ngunit ng binasa ko ang kontrata, nalaman kong magkaiba ang trabahong nakasulat dito, ano ang gagawin ko?)   +  


Ask the private recruitment agency to explain the same and rectify if could be corrected. Otherwise, you may file a recruitment violation for misrepresentation against the erring agency at Legal Assistance Division.

Tanungin ang ahensiya kung bakit magka-iba ang ito at kung maari itong mai-tama. Kung hindi, maari kang magsampa ng kaso laban sa iyong ahensiya ng pagsisinungaling ng impormasyon (misrepresentation) sa Legal Assistance Division.

Does a Balik-Manggagawa worker have to go through POEA processing all over again? (Ang Balik-Manggagawa ba ay kinakailangan pang magtungo sa POEA para magpaproseso ulit?)   +  


No, the worker's employer and employment contract were already verified and as such, all he/she have to do is secure an overseas employment certificate (OEC) ONLINE by logging into http://bmonline.ph or by regular personal processing at the POEA Balik-Manggagawa Processing Center or regional centers, satellite offices and some Philippine Overseas Labor Offices.

Hindi na, ang employer at kontrata ng Balik-Manggagawa ay dati nang napatunayan, kung kaya ang dapat lamang nitong gagawin ay kumuha ng overseas employment certificate (OEC) ONLINE sa pamamagitan ng pag-log-in sa http://bmonline.ph o kaya magtungo ng personal sa POEA Balik-Manggagawa Processing Center o regional center at sa iba't ibang Philippine Overseas Labor Offices.

In case, I lost my BM ONLINE OEC, what shall I do? How about the regular BM OEC or E-receipt? (Kung sakaling mawala ko ang aking BM ONLINE OEC, ano ang gagawin ko? Paano kung ito ay regular BM OEC or E-receipt?)   +  


In case of Online BM OEC, you may log in into your account and re-print the same. In case of a regular BM OEC or E-receipt, you cannot apply for a replacement of the same. You should request for a certification indicating the particulars of previously issued e-receipt/OEC based on available POEA/POLO recordsupon submission of an Affidavit of Loss.

Kung ito ay Online BM OEC, maari kang mag-log-in sa iyong account at muli itong ipaprinta (re-reprint). Kung ito naman at regular BM OEC o kaya a y E-receipt, hindi na ito maaring palitan. Kinakailan mo ng humingi ng sertipikasyon na nakasulat ang dating mga impormasyon sa iyong OEC/E-receipt base sa rekord ng POEA/POLO matapos makapagsumite ng Affidavit of Loss.

I am Balik- Manggagawa worker, I tried to secure a BM OEC Online, but still the system re-directed me to the Appointment Page with an instruction to undergo personal regular processing, what possibly have happened? (Ako ay isang Balik- Manggagawa, sinubukan kong kumuha ng OEC sa online, ngunit may nagpapakita na impormasyon na nasasaad na kinakailangan kong personal na magtungo sa POEA para magproseso, ano kaya ang maaring dahilan nito?)   +  


The use of BM ONLINE is only for workers who are returning to same employer and jobsite, with employment visa/work permit, previous record with the POEA Data Base (Info Sheet) and has previously issued OEC or E-receipt under the same principal/employer. Thus, if you are re-directed to Appointment Page despite being a Balik-Manggawa, you could be possibly have under the following conditions:

1. No POEA record/ No record Found/ With Discrepancy in the Record
2. Undocumented worker or irregular worker (Tourist to OFW, Student to OFW etc)
3. Worker is under POEA watchlist
4. Principal/Employer is POEA watchlist
5. Change of Employer or Jobsite
6. Seabased to Land based worker
7.Worker returning to Banned Country, Non-Compliant Country or Restricted Country.


Ang gamit ng BM ONLINE ay para lamang sa mga OFWs na babalik sa kani-kanilang parehong employer o amo at sa dating pinagtrabahuhang bansa na may dati ng visa o work permit, may OFW Information Sheet at dati nang OEC o E-receipt sa parehong employer o amo. Kung ikaw ay pinapunta ng personal sa POEA para magproseso, maaring ang dahilan nito ay ang mga sumusunod:

1. Walang OFW Info Sheet)/ May pagkakaiba sa Rekord
2. Hindi dokumentado o irregular na status or [ nag-Tourist tapos nagtrabaho (tourist to OFW), estudyante tapos nagtrabaho (student to OFW)]
3. Ang OFW ay nasa watchlist ng POEA
4. Ang employer ay nasa watchlist ng POEA
5. Nagbago ng Employer o ng lugar ng trabaho
6. OFW na dating Seabased na naging Land based
7. Ang bansang pupuntahan ay nasa tala ng bansang naka-banned, on-Compliant Country o Restricted Country.

I am employed in the Philippines, in a multi-national corporation, but after several years, I was informed by the President of the company that I will be transferring to the home office in United States, what shall I do? (Ako ay nagtatrabaho sa isang multi national corporation sa Pilipinas, makalipas ang ilang taon, sinabihan ako ng Presidente ng aming kompanya na ililipat ako sa home office sa Amerika, ano ang gagawin ko?)   +  


I will secure an Overseas Employment Certificate (OEC) as name- hire worker.

Kukuha ako ng Overseas Employment Certificate (OEC) bilang isang name- hire worker.

Does a family of an OFW need to pay for the travel tax when visiting the worker? (Kinakailangan pa ba ng pamilya ng OFW na magbayad ng travel tax sa pagbisita nito sa OFW?)   +  


Yes, but on a reduced rate while the OFW has an existing employment contract. The reduced travel tax certificate is issued by the Department of Tourism. You may call (02) 524-7141 loc. 109 or visit them at the Ground Floor, Room 117, Revenue Depart¬ment, Department of Tourism Building, T.M. Kalaw, Malate, Manila.

Oo, pero sa mas mababa na halaga na lamang habang ang OFW na may kasalukayang kontrata. Ang reduced travel tax certificate ay binibiga ng Department of Tourism. Tumawag sa telepono bilang (02) 524-7141 loc. 109 o kaya ay tumungo sa Ground Floor, Room 117, Revenue Department, Department of Tourism Building, T.M. Kalaw, Malate, Manila.

Can a private recruitment agency conduct recruitment outside of its office address? (Maari bang mag-rekrut ang isang ahensiya sa labas ng kanilang opisina o tanggapan?)   +  


No, unless covered by a Special Recruitment Authority (SRA) issued by POEA and during the Job's Fair only under the supervision of PESO.

Hindi, kung wala silang Special Recruitment Authority (SRA) na binibigay ng POEA at maari din kung nasa Job's Fair na nasa superbisyon ng PESO.

What is PDOS? (Ano ang PDOS?)   +  


(PDOS) refers to Pre-Departure Orientation Seminar being conducted for departing overseas Filipino workers to address their adjustment concerns in their destination countries. Pre-Departure Orientation Seminar (PDOS) is a requirement for all Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs).

Ang (PDOS) ay tmutukoy sa Pre-Departure Orientation Seminar na isinasagawa para sa mga paalis na mga OFWs para matugunan ang kanilang magiging problema sa bansang pupuntahan. Ito rin hinihingi sa lahat ng mga Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs).

If I am directly hired by employer abroad without the aid of any overseas recruitment firm, do I still need to go through the POEA? (Kung ako ay nakakuha ng trabaho patungong ibang bansa ng walang tulong ng isang ahensiya, kailangan ko pa bang magtungo sa POEA?)   +  


Yes, all name hires or direct hires need to go to the POEA for evaluation and verification of their documents at Name Hire Processing Unit located at Mezzanine, 2nd Floor of BFO building.

Oo, lahat ng OFWs na direktang nakakuha ng trabaho patungong abroad ay kinakailangan paring magtungo sa POEA para patunayan ito at para masuri ang mga dokumento sa Name Hire Processing Unit na matatagpuan sa Mezzanine, 2nd Floor of BFO building.

What are the safeguards to applying for overseas employment? (Anu-ano ang dapat gawin ng nag-aapply magtrabaho sa ibang bansa?)   +  


Check a company’s license and its job orders, placement fees and employment contract with the POEA. Consult POEA at hotlines at (02) 722-1144/ 722-1155. You may also visit the POEA website at www.poea.gov.ph.

Suriin ang lisensiya ng ahensiya at mga trabaho dito (job orders), placement fee at kontrata sa POEA. Kumonsulta sa POEA telepono bilang (02) 722-1144/ 722-1155. Magtungo sa POEA website sa www.poea.gov.ph.

I don’t have a passport yet, but I want to work abroad, can I go to a private recruitment agency to apply?   +  


Yes. The private recruitment agency may help you secure your passport and other documents such as NBI, Authentication of Documents, etc., subject only to your payment of documentary costs.

Eric is a departing worker of a private recruitment agency. Days before his deployment, he went to his agency and secured a referral for PDOS. On the day of his departure, he asked by the Bureau of Immigration of his PDOS Certificate but he failed to produce the same. The agency reasoned that it has complied with the law as it already referred the worker to PDOS and it his own wrongdoing why he did not attend the seminar. Is the agency correct?   +  


No. The agency’s undertaking to provide PDOS to its departing workers includes the obligation to ensure that they attend the required PDOS before their deployment.(IN RE: Al Hirsh Manpower Services, Inc., POEA Case No. RV 04-10-1820, February 21, 2007)

My wife is being maltreated by her employer in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, I want to bring her home in the Philippines, what shall I do?   +  


You may proceed to POEA’s Repatriation Unit at 2nd Floor, Blas Ople Building, Ortigas Ave., Cor. Edsa, Mandaluyong City, to request for an immediate repatriation of your wife or to OWWA at F.B. Harrison St, Pasay, Metro Manila or at Undersecretary of Migrant Workers’ Affairs (OUMWA) of the Department of Foreign Affairs at DFA Bldg., 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Pasay City/Tel.: 834-4449 with email: oumwa@dfa.gov.ph.

After your wife has returned to the country, advise her to proceed to Legal Assistance Division of the Anti-Illegal Recruitment Branch to assist her in filing a case against her employer.

If my husband in his OFW Information Sheet represented his marital status as single, can I file for a possible disciplinary action against him?   +  


Yes. Misrepresentation of marital status by a worker is actionable wrong being penalized by POEA as Disciplinary Action against Worker (DAW).

Examples of a recruitment violations that a private recruitment agency usually commit.   +  


1.overcharging of placement fee
2. pre-mature collection of placement fee
3. misrepresentation
4. withholding of travel documents
5. failure to deploy without valid reason
6. failure to reimburse documentation expenses when deployment did not take place without the worker’s fault
7. substitution and alteration of employment contract
8.recruitment with unauthorized agent.

Examples of a offenses of worker while working overseas usually commit.   +  


1.misappropriation of property or money of fellow worker entrusted for delivery
2.creating trouble
3. theft/robbery
4.possession of deadly weapon
5.drunkenness
6.drug addiction, etc.

How do I avoid illegal recruitment?   +  


1. Do not apply at recruitment agencies not licensed by POEA.
2. Do not deal with licensed agencies without job orders.
3. Do not deal with any person who is not an authorized representative of a licensed agency.
4. Do not transact business outside the registered address of the agency. If recruitment is conducted in the province, check if the agency has a provincial recruitment authority.
5. Do not pay more than the allowed placement fee. It should be equivalent to one month salary, exclusive of documentation and processing costs.
6. Do not pay any placement fee unless you have a valid employment contract and an official receipt.
7. Do not be enticed by ads or brochures requiring you to reply to a Post Office (P.O.) Box, and to enclose payment for processing of papers.
8. Do not deal with training centers and travel agencies, which promise overseas employment.
9. Do not accept a tourist visa.
10. Do not deal with fixers.

Who can only secure OEC issued by LAC? (Sinu-sino lamang ang maaring makakuha ng OEC sa LAC?)   +  


The Administration may issue OEC at the LAC ONLY to the following:
a. Workers on special/emergency leave;
b. Cabin crew / flight attendants.

Sila ay ang mga sumusunod:
a. Mga OFWs na naka-special o emergency leave.
b. Cabin crew / flight attendants.

What are the countries where the prevailing system, either by law, policy or practice do not allow, directly or indirectly, the charging and the collection of recruitment/placement fee? (Anu- anong mga bansa na ayon sa kanilang batas, polisiya o praktis ay bawal ang pangungulekta ng placement fee?)   +  


United States of Amercia (for H-2A and H-2B visa), New Zealand, Israel, United Kingdom (UK), Norway, Netherlands, Ireland and some parts of Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)

United States of Amercia (H-2A and H-2B visa), New Zealand, Israel, United Kingdom (UK), Norway, Netherlands, Ireland at ibang parte ng Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)

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